Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic


Biomass is the biodegradable fraction of products or residues of vegetable and animal substances from agriculture, forestry or the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal wastes.

Biomass in the form of chemically preserved products is solar energy. Plants to grow using carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water from the ground, which, through photosynthesis, transform into hydrocarbons - construction articles biomass. Solar energy, which is the driving force of photosynthesis is actually stored in chemical bonds of organic material. The burning of biomass is recovered energy stored in chemical bonds. Oxygen from the air combines with carbon in the plant, which produce carbon dioxide and water. This process is cyclically closed because the resultant carbon dioxide is the entry compound for the new biomass.

Distribution of biomass production by industry:

agricultural biomass - grain, canola, corn straw. Hemp, animal manure, waste from orchards and vineyards and purpose grown energy crops (willow, poplar, pigweed, sorrel, ...)
forest biomass - fuel wood, branches, stumps, roots, bark, chips, fast-growing trees.
Wastes from wood processing industry - pulp, wood shavings, sawdust
municipal waste - solid combustible waste, biodegradable waste, landfill gas, sewage gas

Agricultural biomass

Agricultural biomass according to the currently available resources can be divided into three basic groups:
biomass suitable for producing hot combustion:

  1. straw - grain, canola, corn, sunflower
  2. Wood waste from vineyards, orchards, raid of permanent grassland


biomass suitable for producing biogas

  1. of livestock excreta
  2. of green matter and silage
  3. waste from food processing plants


biomass suitable for production of liquid biofuels

  1. the production of RME (rapeseed methyl ester)
  2. for bioethanol production (maize, wheat, sugar beet)